Pacemakers were innovative, invasive, and experimental at their start. Now, they are common, but require surgery. A new innovation is a pacemaker that is small enough to be implanted via a catheter, implanted in the heart directly, thereby reducing complications from surgery or disrupting bodily functions. As much as it is a (yet to be approved) medical advance, it is also an example of the incremental advance towards integrated bio-electrical systems. If cyborgs are created, it probably won’t be all at once, but through such incremental and necessary improvements.

(Click on the photo for the link.)

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